Food Advertising: Nature, Impact and Regulation
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What is the Potential for Exposure to Food Advertising? Food Advertising: Informative, Misleading or Deceptive? Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction This book provides an up-to-date and comprehensive review and critique of the scientific evidence concerning the prevalence, nature and potential effects of food advertising and other forms of marketing on children. There is growing international concern about the prevalence of childhood obesity and associated health problems. Poor quality diet and nutrition has been blamed.
The food and soft drinks industries have been targeted in this context for their promotions of foods and drinks that are high in salt, sugar and fat content. Many of the most widely promoted and consumed food brands fail to meet recommended nutritional standards. A study conducted by Frederick J. Zimmerman and Janice F. Bell made the statement that "Commercial television pushes little children to eat a large quantity of those foods they should consume least: sugary cereals , snacks, fast food and soda pop ".
As a result, companies are able to falsely display food items to children and what these children think to be healthy and nutritious is actually unhealthy being high in fats and sugars. The use of promotional characters and premium offers are often used as persuasive tools to market food to children. Premium offers is another persuasive marketing which includes competitions, giveaways and vouchers, the same study found that unhealthy food advertisements contain 18 times as many premium offers during young children's program in comparison to old children's programs.
Industry self regulation of television food advertising: responsible or responsive?
Additionally, several studies have identified that the amount of fruit and vegetables consumed decreases as television viewing time increases. The World Health Organization suggested that companies and organizations make a reduction of "food and beverage marketing directed at little children that are high in sugar, fat, and sodium in order to help reduce the burden of obesity worldwide.
In Canada , the majority of advertising is controlled by companies themselves. In Australia, there is a self-regulatory code toward children's exposure to food advertising. This study was that the proportion of non-core foods advertised decrease by eighteen percent from a previous study from before the self-regulatory code was introduced. The self-regulatory code regulates the use of promotion, popular characters, and unsuitable material during time periods dedicated to children's television programs.
The code does not monitor the types of food that may be advertised to children and does not apply to times when a high number of children are viewing such as a sports match. Since the code was introduced the rate of non-core fast food advertising has decreased as seen in the other study mentioned. The self-regulatory code only covers a small time period and range of food. An improved marketing approach would be limiting advertising on a wider range on fast food not just those designated as children's meals.
This study also saw that advertisement which promotes healthier alternatives often still have some non-core foods present. The Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative CFBAI  is a voluntary program implemented in in the United States, in response to public health concerns and food companies have promised to advertise healthier dietary choices in child-directed advertising. The advertising of candy to children appeared that it would decrease as 4 large candy manufacturers, Mars, Hershey, Kraft, and Nestle pledged to CFBAI that they would not advertise any candy product to children.
A fault with the CFBAI is that it regulates advertising directed at children, many children are exposed to advertisements for candy during programs popular for a wider range of people. Increased participation in CFBAI and a clearer definition of what child-directed advertising is, will be required for a reduction in the exposure of children unhealthy foods. In the European Union, there was a concern for the quantity and type of television food advertising that children are exposed to.
In , the Audiovisual Media Services Directive  was created as a centerpiece of the regulation of advertising unhealthy food and drinks in or accompanying children's programs. The directive does not imply consistent regulations across Member states. It does state the " Member States and the Commission shall encourage media service providers to develop codes of conduct regarding inappropriate audiovisual commercial communications, accompanying or included in children's programs, of foods and beverages containing nutrients and substances with a nutritional or physiological effect ".
Each country implements a variation in the strength of its regulations, based on the framework is created from the directive. Each country has a different legal point of view toward marketing practices, television regulations and the protection of minors. The individual European Union's Member States interpretation of the Directive is left to the national regulators to set a clear degree of regulatory protection.
This is set by the regulator along with the industry and broadcasters themselves who interpret the previsions. This results in a national regulation of advertising to children that considers the nations legal and cultural traditions as well as economic and political objectives, which do not always compare across member states.
Some member states impose a partial ban on advertising in children programs, where others prohibit the showing of sponsorship logo in children programs. In Norway and Quebec advertising to children under the age of 12 is illegal. The European Union also has framework legislation in place which sets down minimum provisions on advertising to children for all its member states. Advertising shall not cause moral or physical detriment to minors, and shall, therefore, comply with the following criteria for their protection:. Note that criterion b explicitly outlaws appeals to " pester power ".
In Australia, there are multiple governing bodies that deal with the legislation of advertising to children.
Advertising to children
The object of this Code is to ensure that advertisers and marketers develop and maintain a high sense of social responsibility in advertising and marketing to children in Australia. This was in an attempt to balance:. In the United States, advertisements marketed to children were limited between and In many countries, advertising is also governed by self-regulatory codes of conduct.
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Advertisers, advertising agencies and the media agree on a code of advertising standards enforced by a Self-regulatory organization. On a global level, the International Chamber of Commerce has drafted a global code on marketing communications. Since , a global code of practice on food marketing communications is also in place. The Framework for Responsible Food and Beverage Marketing Communications of the International Chamber of Commerce ICC  sets down global requirements for food and beverage marketing communications on all media, including the Internet.
Many countries have implemented self-regulatory provisions that use the ICC Framework as a basis, but go further in several respects, depending on local considerations. In addition to industry-wide self-regulation, individual companies and industry sectors have introduced a wide range of additional provisions relating to marketing communications directed at children.
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For example, most multinational food and beverage companies have developed their own policies on food and beverage marketing communications to children, and have announced the joint implementation of these individual commitments. A similar program was launched by leading food companied in Thailand in May and in Australia in mid From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. European Journal of Marketing. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. Advertising to children: New directions, new media. Retrieved 18 February Retrieved 1 April Journal of Consumer Research.