The Webbs in Asia: The 1911–12 Travel Diary
These results demonstrate that Bd was present in Korea in the early s, consistent with hypotheses suggesting the existence of endemic Bd strains in Asia [ 7 ]. Modern samples of Rugosa emeljanovi showed a Bd prevalence of The inconsistencies revealed when comparing historical and modern data may be attributable to three factors: 1 increased Bd prevalence in recent times by either an endemic strain or emergence of a new strain e.
Our data cannot differentiate among these possibilities. Although we know that Bd was present in Korea in , we do not know its status between and present time. Further study involving time-calibrated genetic analyses and additional historical specimens is needed to determine how Bd spread through Korea over time. We minimized the possibility of false positives for the three specimens collected in by running replicate tests on each sample using two different methods—qPCR and histology.
All tests consistently yielded the same result—low Bd infection loads in the three specimens. The robustness of our conclusions is boosted by a recent study that found low probabilities of false positives due to contamination using the same qPCR assay that we used [ 18 ]. Although uncertainty exists as to how the museum specimens were handled in the past, we undertook precautions to minimize sample contamination by continually sterilizing equipment and the workspace. Additionally, specimens from CAS were stored separately by species, locality, and collecting trip, further reducing the possibility of cross-contamination.
In the jar of the three positive samples, four other frogs consistently yielded negative results for Bd in all trials. For qPCR, positive and negative controls were run throughout the procedure, and neither produced results that would indicate a failed reaction or contamination. We expect contamination of samples by DNA standards to be random. However, repeated runs of positive samples consistently gave positive results.
This PCR assay has been applied extensively since without any reports of false positives [ 3 , 19 , 20 ]. Difficulties of extracting and amplifying DNA from preserved specimens, especially those exposed to formalin, have been well documented [ 21 , 23 ] but see [ 18 ]. There is greater success with ethanol-preserved specimens and PCR success appears negatively correlated with exposure time to formalin [ 30 ].
Therefore, the preservation history of a specimen should be considered when making conclusions using such data. The three positive samples and four negative samples stored in the same jar were collected by Joseph C. Vindum, pers. The known preservation history of the three positive samples gives us greater confidence that they are true positives. Histological analyses of the three Bd -positive specimens showed mild hyperkeratosis—a thickened stratum corneum. Hyperkeratosis is a non-specific host response seen in a variety of skin diseases, but associated with Bd infection [ 4 ].
Although no Bd organisms were found, histological examination of the skin is known to be an insensitive method for detection of Bd , especially with low-level or subclinical infections [ 19 , 31 ]. Evidence of Bd is often found in the stratum corneum and sloughed skin, so swabbing itself may have physically removed zoosporangia and destroyed histological evidence of positive infection.
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Histological results are consistent with qPCR results that detected low zoospore counts. Similarly, contemporary samples of native Korean amphibian species reveal low levels of Bd infection, with an average of 1. Our results need to be interpreted within an historical anthropogenic context. Korea was relatively isolated from other countries until the late s, when several international treaties opened ports to trade.
Wonsan, the site of the three positive specimens, was opened in to trade with Japan, Russia, China, Germany, and Great Britain [ 32 , 33 ]. The Bd- positive samples were collected in , which raises the possibility that Bd was introduced into Korea during the late s or early s from one of the trade partner countries. Japan and China are the most likely sources, as trade with these countries was the highest [ 32 ].
We cannot determine whether Bd detected in our study is native or introduced, but if introduced, its likely origin is still Asia. The evolutionary history of Bd may be complex [ 10 ], with both endemic and novel strains existing in a region. Understanding the geographic origins of Bd is thus important in interpreting the effects on hosts and in determining the best way to conserve threatened species. Worldwide, the earliest records of Bd are from Brazil [ 17 ], from Cameroon [ 37 ] and China [ 26 ], from Kenya [ 38 ], and from South Africa [ 39 ].
Our study pushes the presence of Bd in Asia back to All these studies point toward longer, potentially independent histories of Bd in some parts of the world. Continued testing of historical specimens coupled with repeated surveys in present-day populations are needed to give a perspective on the dynamic pathogen-host relationship and the differing effects of endemic and introduced Bd strains. Taxonomy was changed to follow AmphibiaWeb www. Under preservation type, the preservatives used for specimen preparation followed by that used for storage are given. Analyzed the data: JJF.
Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Bd is a major conservation concern because of its role in decimating amphibian populations worldwide. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.
Introduction The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Bd is linked to declines or extinctions of more than amphibian species worldwide [ 1 — 3 ].see url
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Download: PPT. Fig 1. Sampling of historical specimens across the Korean Peninsula used in this study. Table 2. Discussion We discovered three Bd -positive individuals out of historical specimens 1. Supporting Information. S1 Table. Data of historical amphibian samples used in this study.
References 1. Annu Rev Microbiol — J Vet Diag Invest — Mol Ecol — J Wildl Dis — New York: McGraw-Hill. Complex history of the amphibian-killing chytrid fungus revealed with genome resequencing data. Darly, Gillian. Design for the South Kensington Museum Building. Gray, Stuart A. Edwardian Architecture: A Biographical Dictionary. Jackson, N. London: Sir Banister Fletcher Library, August Choisy, 20th June, Service, Alastair.
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New York, Toronto: Oxford Press, Edwardian Architecture and Its Origins. London: Architectural Press Ltd. Public Buildings and Churches. Illus, plans. Webb, architect. Architect and Building News November 17, : p. Architect and Building News February 2, : p. The following section contains a detailed listing of the materials in the collection.
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Accessing Materials Described Here. Sir Aston Webb collection. Sir Aston Webb , London architect, designed many large public commissions throughout England between ; he worked with E. Ingress Bell and later with his son Maurice Webb. The collection consists of architectural drawings, photographs, and tearsheets from British architectural periodicals that document the career of Sir Aston Webb. This collection is indexed under the following headings in the University of Texas Online Catalog. Researchers desiring materials about related topics, persons, or places should search the catalog using these headings.
Sir Aston Webb and E. Ingress Bell "Current Architecture. Maurice Everett Webb "Century of Progress. The Builder November 17, : p. The Builder December 1, : p. The printed material series consists of a published brochure and a publication by Webb, Webb, Sir Aston. London of the Future. London: T. Fisher Unvin Ltd, This series consist of architectural drawings, photographs and "tearsheets" from British architectural periodicals.
Entries in the Drawings Series are indexed in alphabetical order by Client's name. If the client is not identifiable, the field will remain blank. Entries without client names are sorted by Project Name and listed before those that provide client's names. Furthermore, similar projects are sorted in chronological order by date.
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Project names are supplied by the cataloger, as title blocks on the drawings prove to be inconsistent and many drawings are not labeled. Project names may also have been adjusted to accommodate alphabetical sorting. Dates are offered if they can be derived from the drawings or gathered from other authoritative sources.
The term "drawing" includes both original works such as pencil on trace paper, or ink on tracing cloth as well as copies such as sepia prints, blue line prints, etc. Project name: Abbey Flats. Dawson, assoc.
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Project name: Admiralty and War Offices. Ingress Bell. Project name: All Saint's School. Additions and alterations. Project name: Artillery House. Project name: Artillery Monument. New arrangement. Project name: Banco de Chile. Project name: "Bassets". Project name: Birmingham Hospitals Centre. Project name: Birmingham New Law Courts. Project name: Birmingham Police Headquarters. Project name: Birmingham University. Project name: Branston Cottage group. Project name: Burford Church.
Project name: Burton Infirmary. Alteration and extension. Project name: Certificates. Project name: Church of Saint Bartholomew the Great. Project name: Conservative Club. Project name: Consol's Market. Project name: Dunbar Site Memorial. Project name: Ellens Farm. Project name: Evelyn Nursing Home. Project name: Fountain. Project name: Foxbury garden house. Project name: Government House. Project name: Guidhall. Project name: Hertford Memorial. Project name: Highways Building. Project name: "Hildon".
Project name: Hockley Sole. Project name: Honor Oak Crematorium. Project name: Huddington Courthouse. Date on drawings: Project name: Junior United Service Club. Project name: Malvern College? Project name: Malvern Town War Memorial. Project name: Manor Park. Cookham Dene. Project name: Marden Park. Stairway addition to garden front. Project name: Marlborough College. New boarding house. Project name: Maurice Everett Webb portrait.
Project name: Memorial tablet to the memory of the late Mr. Project name: Miscellaneous projects. Project name: Monastic Building or School. Project name: Monument in Monnow Street to the late C. Project name: New Christ's Hospital Schools. Project name: Northamptonshire County Council Buildings. Alterations and additions. Project name: Palazzo Cuccoli.
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Project name: Palazzo Piccolomini. Project name: Princess Beatrice Hospital. Project name: Royal College of Science. Project name: Royal Engineer's Mess. Project name: Royal Engineer's Mess Room. Project name: Royal Exchange. Memorial to the London Troops. Project name: Royal Naval College. War memorial. Project name: Royal Society of Arts.
Project name: Royal United Service Institution. Project name: S. Queen Elizabeth. Project name: Saint Cuthbert's College. Project name: Saint George's Church. Project name: School. Project name: Shepherds Bush Flats.